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2008-03-15
赫拉克利特的逻各斯之路/槛外人
TAG:岳麓门 槛外人 赫拉克利特 逻各斯

赫拉克利特的逻各斯之路

 槛外人

古希腊哲学家讨论大千世界、讨论整个宇宙时都会用到kosmos这个词,它的意思乃“有序的整全”。人类心智之所以能领悟kosmos,乃因为同一种法则、同一个逻各斯(logos)引领着自然和人心。这就是赫拉克利特(Heraclitus,公元前540-480)要告诉我们的,但他又认为梦游般活着的凡人无法企及这等境界,因为

“对清醒的人而言,kosmos是统一的、普世的;对睡着的人而言,人人都回到了各自的世界。”(残篇89)“我们不该像睡着的人那样说话行事。”(残篇73)“我们应该遵循普世的东西;尽管logos即是普世的东西,但多数人依然自以为是的生活着。”(残篇2)[To those who are awake the world-order is one, common to all; but the sleeping turn aside each into a world of his own. We ought not to act and speak like men asleep. We ought to follow what is common to all; but though the logos is common to all, the many live as though their thought were private to themselves.]

原义为“说话”的logos变成了赖以安身立命之道,既意指思想的法则,也意指万物的法则。赫拉克利特说,

“不要听我的话,而要听从逻各斯,承认万般归一即是智慧。”(残篇50)[Listening not to me but to the logos, it is wise to acknowledge that all things are one.]

有人视赫拉克利特为现代量子力学的先驱,只为他说过一句:“你不可能两次踏进同一条河(You can’t step into the same river twice,残篇91)”,又说过:“一切皆流(all are in flux like a river,残篇12)”。

国朝哲学史家则津津乐道于赫拉克利特的“kosmos一视同仁,它既非神创、也非人创,它过去、现在和将来都是一团永生之火,燃烧有法,熄灭有度(This world-order, the same for all, no god made or any man, but it always was and is and will be an ever-living fire, kindling by measure and going out by measure,残篇30)”,只为列宁说过:“这是对辩证唯物主义原则的绝妙的说明”。事实上这团“永生之火”并非什么物质性的本原,而是逻各斯的象征。况且希腊哲学中的诸神本身并非造物主,而是被造物,其位阶尚在天体之下(参见柏拉图《蒂迈欧》)故将赫拉克利特奉为辩证唯物论的鼻祖未免一厢情愿。

赫拉克利特并不掩饰自己对凡人的蔑视,他说:“多数人既不理解他们撞见的东西,也不理解他们受教的东西,只管自行其是(For the many do not understand such things when they meet whith them; nor having learned do they comprehend, though they think they do,残篇17)”。

他又说:“即使如我所说的那样,逻各斯是其所是,人们也永不会理解,无论人们之前有所闻也罢、初次听说也罢。虽然万物都根据这个逻各斯而生,虽然我已经阐明,万物依其本性而厘定名分、而报其所是,虽然人们实际上也熟悉此类言语和行事,但他们依然对逻各斯感到陌生。另一些人则对他们清醒时的亲作亲为毫无知觉,仿佛在梦中一般。”(残篇1)[Tough the logos is as I have said, people always fail to comprehend it, both before they hear it and when they hear it for the first time. For though all things come into being in accordance with this logos, they seem like people without experience, though in fact they do have experience both of words and deeds such as I have set forth, distinguishing each thing in accordance with its nature and declaring what it is. But other people are as unaware of what they do when awake as they are when they are asleep.]

人民版《希腊哲学史》(第一卷第455页)将the logos is译为“逻各斯常在”。我以为,这里的is乃这个动词的哲学用法,一如God is(直译:“上帝是”)中的is,不宜译为实义的“存在”或“有”,只能译为“是”或“是其所是”。假如有人说译成“是”不易理解,那么,可以直言,在西方语言中生了根的哲学本来就不好理解。“是”不仅意味着“存在”,而且意味着更多。对信徒来说,上帝存在根本毋容讨论、根本毋须讨论。同样,对赫拉克利特来说,逻各斯存在根本毋容讨论、根本毋须讨论,故决不会拿“逻各斯常在”作为开场白。

人民版《希腊哲学史》(第一卷第455页)又将declaring what it is译为“解释了它们是如何发生的”。首先what it is的意思乃“所是”或“何所是”,或者按流行的译法应为“存在者”,或者直译“它是什么”,根本没有“如何”的意思。其次,这里的declaring的逻辑主语应为“万物”,整个分词短语的意思很显豁,逻各斯让万物报上名来,而非赫拉克利特在解释what it is。



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